We have a simple binary tree and we have to print the top 3 largest elements present in the binary tree.

Examples:

Input : 1 / \ 2 3 / \ / \ 4 5 4 5 Output :Three largest elements are 5 4 3

**Approach** We can simply take three variables first, second, third to store the first largest, second largest, third largest respectively and perform preorder traversal and each time we will update the elements accordingly.

This approach will take O(n) time only.

Algorithm-

1- Take 3 variables first, second, third 2- Perform a preorder traversal if (root==NULL) return if root's data is larger then first update third with second second with first first with root's data else if root's data is larger then second and not equal to first update third with second second with root's data else if root's data is larger then third and not equal to first & second update third with root's data 3- call preorder for root->left 4- call preorder for root->right

`// CPP program to find largest three elements in ` `// a binary tree. ` `#include <bits/stdc++.h> ` `using` `namespace` `std; ` ` ` `struct` `Node { ` ` ` `int` `data; ` ` ` `struct` `Node *left; ` ` ` `struct` `Node *right; ` `}; ` ` ` `/* Helper function that allocates a new Node with the ` ` ` `given data and NULL left and right pointers. */` `struct` `Node *newNode(` `int` `data) { ` ` ` `struct` `Node *node = ` `new` `Node; ` ` ` `node->data = data; ` ` ` `node->left = NULL; ` ` ` `node->right = NULL; ` ` ` `return` `(node); ` `} ` ` ` `// function to find three largest element ` `void` `threelargest(Node *root, ` `int` `&first, ` `int` `&second, ` ` ` `int` `&third) { ` ` ` `if` `(root == NULL) ` ` ` `return` `; ` ` ` ` ` `// if data is greater than first large number ` ` ` `// update the top three list ` ` ` `if` `(root->data > first) { ` ` ` `third = second; ` ` ` `second = first; ` ` ` `first = root->data; ` ` ` `} ` ` ` ` ` `// if data is greater than second large number ` ` ` `// and not equal to first update the bottom ` ` ` `// two list ` ` ` `else` `if` `(root->data > second && root->data != first) { ` ` ` `third = second; ` ` ` `second = root->data; ` ` ` `} ` ` ` ` ` `// if data is greater than third large number ` ` ` `// and not equal to first & second update the ` ` ` `// third highest list ` ` ` `else` `if` `(root->data > third && ` ` ` `root->data != first && ` ` ` `root->data != second) ` ` ` `third = root->data; ` ` ` ` ` `threelargest(root->left, first, second, third); ` ` ` `threelargest(root->right, first, second, third); ` `} ` ` ` `// driver function ` `int` `main() { ` ` ` `struct` `Node *root = newNode(1); ` ` ` `root->left = newNode(2); ` ` ` `root->right = newNode(3); ` ` ` `root->left->left = newNode(4); ` ` ` `root->left->right = newNode(5); ` ` ` `root->right->left = newNode(4); ` ` ` `root->right->right = newNode(5); ` ` ` ` ` `int` `first = 0, second = 0, third = 0; ` ` ` `threelargest(root, first, second, third); ` ` ` `cout << ` `"three largest elements are "` ` ` `<< first << ` `" "` `<< second << ` `" "` ` ` `<< third; ` ` ` `return` `0; ` `} ` |

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**Output:**

three largest elements are 5 4 3

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